The prevalence, comorbidity and socio-demographic factors of depressive disorder among Iranian children and adolescents: To identify the main predictors of depression

J Affect Disord. 2019 Mar 15:247:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.01.005. Epub 2019 Jan 5.


Background: Depressive disorders are a major public health problem in developed and developing countries. Recently, several risk factors have been described for depressive disorders in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to identify the main risk factors that can affect the incidence of depression in Iranian children and adolescents.

Methods: A total of 30,546 children and adolescents (between 6 and 18 years of age) participated in a cross-sectional study to identify the predictors of depressive disorders. Depressive disorders were assessed using the Persian version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL). In addition, a demographic characteristics questionnaire was completed by parents of the participants. The data was analyzed using the SPSS22 software via performing the descriptive analysis and the multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: Results showed that a higher age (15-18), being female, and the father's unemployment were associated with an increased odds ratio for depressive disorders. The age of 10-14 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.57-2.81), the age of 15-18 (OR = 4.44; 95% CI, 3.38-5.83), female gender (OR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.2-1.73) and the father's unemployment (OR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.01-2.5) were significant positive predictors, whereas, the mother's job (as a housewife) (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45-0.96) and a history of psychiatric hospitalization of the father and mother (OR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.78 and OR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.14-0.84) were negative predictors for depressive symptoms.

Conclusion: Depressive symptoms are common in children and adolescents and are correlated with age and gender. The assessment of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, especially the depressive disorders and their comorbidities, may help to prevent mood disorders in children and adolescents.

Keywords: Children and adolescents; Comorbidity; Depressive symptoms; Prevalence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child Behavior Disorders / epidemiology
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depressive Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Somatoform Disorders / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires