Dry sliding wear behaviour of β-type Ti-Nb and Ti-Mo surfaces designed by diffusion treatments for biomedical applications

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2019 Mar;91:335-344. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2018.12.029. Epub 2018 Dec 24.


The dry sliding wear behaviour of different Ti-Nb and Ti-Mo surfaces was investigated in order to evaluate the role of Nb and Mo β-stabilizing elements in titanium wear resistance to consider them for biomedical applications. Dry sliding wear tests were performed under unlubricated conditions using a ball-on-plate tribometer (UMT) with reciprocating lineal movement of 1 Hz frequency at different loads (2 and 5 N) and against two counterface materials (alumina and stainless steel) to assess the effect of these parameters on wear. The results indicated an improvement in wear resistance for all the modified Ti surfaces. Metal-on-metal surfaces exhibited higher wear rate than ceramic-on-metal, and higher wear was observed for the more severe conditions. Wear rate values on modified surfaces were between 53% and 96% lower compared to pure Ti tested at 2 N, and up to 79% lower than Ti at 5 N. In both cases the highest wear reduction was observed for Ti-MoNH4Cl surface.

Keywords: Biomaterial; Diffusion treatments; Mo; Nb; Wear; β-gradient titanium.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry*
  • Corrosion
  • Diffusion
  • Friction
  • Materials Testing
  • Mechanical Phenomena*
  • Molybdenum / chemistry*
  • Niobium / chemistry*
  • Stainless Steel / chemistry
  • Surface Properties
  • Titanium / chemistry*


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Niobium
  • Stainless Steel
  • Molybdenum
  • Titanium