The effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on some metabolic and inflammatory markers in diabetic nephropathy patients with marginal status of vitamin D: A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial

Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2019 Jan-Feb;13(1):278-283. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.09.013. Epub 2018 Sep 12.


Aims: Diabetic nephropathy is known to be an independent risk factor in the progression of renal and cardiovascular disorders. Due to the association between vitamin D deficiency and diabetic nephropathy, vitamin D deficiency in the diabetic nephropathy population, this study conducted to examine the effects of Vitamin D3 on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Methods: This eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 50 diabetic nephropathy patients with marginal status of vitamin D. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: control and intervention. Participants received a vitamin D3 (50000 IU) supplement weekly on a specific day. Fasting blood samples were collected from all patients at their entry to the study, and eight weeks after intervention.

Results: Analyses showed significance differences in physical activity between the intervention and placebo groups (P = 0.018). There were no significant differences between the percentage changes of HbA1c, insulin and, inflammatory parameters such as TNF-α and IL-6 (P > 0.05), while the percentage change of FBS was significantly higher in the placebo group compared to the treatment one (P < 0.0001). Lower levels of FBS (P < 0.0001), insulin (P < 0.069), HOMA-IR (P < 0.001), TNF-α (P< 0.002) and IL-6 (P < 0.037) were found after supplementation in treatment group. However, the phosphorous and protein percentage change in urine were lower (P = 0.07) and higher (P = 0.003) between groups.

Conclusions: It was found that vitamin D supplementation can be regarded as an effective way to prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy by reducing levels of proteinuria, and inflammatory markers such as TNF-α and IL-6.

Keywords: Diabetes; Nephropathy; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cholecalciferol / administration & dosage*
  • Cholecalciferol / blood
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / blood
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / etiology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / prevention & control*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / diagnosis
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Inflammation / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Metabolic Diseases / blood
  • Metabolic Diseases / diagnosis
  • Metabolic Diseases / etiology
  • Metabolic Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamins / blood
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • Vitamins
  • Cholecalciferol