Optimization of insulin regimen and glucose outcomes with short-term real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) in type 1 diabetic children with sub-optimal glucose control on multiple daily injections: The pediatric DIACCOR study

Arch Pediatr. 2019 Feb;26(2):95-101. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2018.11.010. Epub 2019 Jan 12.


Background: The impact of 7-day real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) on type 1 diabetes (T1D) management remains unknown in youths with suboptimal control by multiple daily injections (MDI). The DIACCOR Study aimed to describe treatment decisions and glucose outcomes after a short-term RT-CGM sequence in real-life conditions.

Methods: This French multicenter longitudinal observational study included T1D youths with HbA1c>7.5% or a history of severe hypoglycemia (SH) or recurrent documented hypoglycemia. A sensor was inserted at the study-inclusion visit, and one of three predefined treatment changes was proposed by the investigator within 7-15 days: INT=MDI intensification, CSII=switch to continuous insulin infusion, or ER=educational reinforcement with no change in insulin regimen and a 4-month follow-up visit (M4) was scheduled.

Results: A total of 229 children (12.2±3.5 years old) were recruited by 74 pediatricians; 12.8% had a history of SH, 22.2% had recurrent hypoglycemia. Baseline HbA1c was 8.7±1.5% (>7.5% in 82.8%). Overall, 139 (79.4%), 19 (10.9%), and 17 patients (9.7%) were, respectively, included in the INT, CSII, and ER subgroups. At M4, the global incidence of SH and recurrent hypoglycemia dropped (3.4% vs. 12.8% and 6.0% vs. 22.2%, respectively) as well as the incidence of ketoacidosis (2.1% vs. 8.1%) or ketosis (6.9% vs. 11.4%). The HbA1c decrease was significant overall and in the INT subgroup (adjusted difference -0.29%, P=0.009). The satisfaction rate was≥93.0% among children.

Conclusion: In a real-life setting, a 1-week RT-CGM can promote treatment optimization in youths with uncontrolled T1D resulting mostly in less acute events. CGM acceptance may improve with new-generation sensors.

Keywords: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM); Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII); Hypoglycemia; Multiple daily injections (MDI); Pediatrics; Type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / instrumentation
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / methods*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Computer Systems
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Injections
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin