Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome caused by excessive immune activation. Secondary HLH has been described in autoimmune diseases. We detail the case of a 28-year-old African American woman who developed HLH in the setting of systemic lupus erythematosus with collapsing lupus podocytopathy superimposed on mesangial proliferative lupus nephritis class II. Genotyping for APOL1 risk alleles revealed the presence of double (G1/G2) risk alleles. Our patient achieved a complete renal recovery and resolution of HLH within 1 month of treatment with steroids and mycophenolate mofetil, highlighting the importance of prompt, aggressive therapy.
Keywords: acute renal failure; haematology (INCL blood transfusion); proteinurea; renal system; systemic lupus erythematosus.
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