Association of Vegetable, Fruit, and Okinawan Vegetable Consumption With Incident Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease

J Epidemiol. 2020 Jan 5;30(1):37-45. doi: 10.2188/jea.JE20180130. Epub 2019 Jan 12.


Background: Few studies have investigated the effects of Okinawan vegetable consumption on the risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease. This study aimed to examine associations of vegetable, fruit, and Okinawan vegetable consumption with risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease in the Japanese population of Okinawa.

Methods: The study design was a prospective cohort study. During 1995-1998, a validated food frequency questionnaire was administered in two study areas to 16,498 participants aged 45-74 years. In 217,467 person-years of follow-up until the end of 2012, a total of 839 stroke cases and 197 coronary heart disease cases were identified.

Results: No statistically significant association between total Okinawan vegetable consumption and risk of stroke and coronary heart disease was obtained: the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest tertile of consumption were 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.93-1.29; P for trend = 0.289) in model 2. Total vegetable and fruit and specific Okinawan vegetable consumption were also not statistically significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular outcomes.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that consumption of total vegetable and fruit, total Okinawan vegetables, and specific Okinawan vegetables in Japanese residents of Okinawa was not associated with risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease.

Keywords: Okinawan vegetable; cardiovascular disease; cohort study.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Coronary Disease / epidemiology*
  • Diet / statistics & numerical data*
  • Diet Surveys
  • Female
  • Fruit*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk
  • Stroke / epidemiology*
  • Vegetables*