Intratumoural heterogeneity underlies tumour escape from molecularly targeted therapy in glioblastoma. A cell-based model preserving the evolving molecular profiles of a tumour during treatment is key to understanding the recurrence mechanisms and development of strategies to overcome resistance. In this study, we established a matched pair of glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSC) cultures from patient glioblastoma samples before and after epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. A patient with recurrent glioblastoma (MGG70R) harboring focal, high-level EGFR amplification received the irreversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor dacomitinib. The tumour that subsequently recurred (MGG70RR) showed diploid EGFR, suggesting inhibitor-mediated elimination of EGFR-amplified tumour cells and propagation of EGFR non-amplified cell subpopulations. The MGG70R-GSC line established from MGG70R formed xenografts retaining EGFR amplification and EGFR overexpression, while MGG70RR-GSC established from MGG70RR generated tumours that lacked EGFR amplification and EGFR overexpression. MGG70R-GSC-derived intracranial xenografts were more proliferative than MGG70RR-GSC xenografts, which had upregulated mesenchymal markers, mirroring the pathological observation in the corresponding patient tumours. In vitro MGG70R-GSC was more sensitive to EGFR inhibitors than MGG70RR-GSC. Thus, these molecularly distinct GSC lines recapitulated the subpopulation alteration that occurred during glioblastoma evasion of targeted therapy, and offer a valuable model facilitating therapeutic development for recurrent glioblastoma.