The adulteration of milk fat in dairy products with cheaper non-milk based fats or oils is frequently encountered in the dairy industry. In this study, Raman spectroscopy with chemometric was used for the discrimination of foreign fats and oils in milk cream and yogurt. Firstly, binary mixtures of cream and oils (corn and sunflower oil), and vegetable fat blends which are potentially or currently used by the dairy industry were prepared. All fat or oil samples and their binary mixtures were examined by using Raman spectroscopy. Then, fat content of skim milk was adjusted to 3% (w/w) by the milk fat, external oils or fats, and binary mixtures, and was used in yogurt production. The lipid fraction of yogurt was extracted and characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The spectral data were then pre-processed and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Raman spectral data showed successful discrimination for about the source of the fats or oils. Temperature effect was also studied at six different temperatures (25, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) in order to obtain the best spectral information. Raman spectra collected at higher temperatures were more intense. Obtained results showed that the performance of Raman spectroscopy with PCA was very promising and can be expected to provide a simple and quick way for the discrimination of foreign fats and oils in both milk cream and yogurt. Fermentation and yogurt processing affected clustering of fat samples by PCA, probably depending on some lipolysis or production of new products that can affect the Raman scattering. However, those changes did not affect differentiation of samples by Raman spectroscopy.
Keywords: Chemometric; Milk cream adulteration; Raman spectroscopy; Temperature; Yogurt adulteration.
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