First International Consensus on the diagnosis and management of fibromuscular dysplasia

Vasc Med. 2019 Apr;24(2):164-189. doi: 10.1177/1358863X18821816. Epub 2019 Jan 16.


This article is a comprehensive document on the diagnosis and management of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), which was commissioned by the working group 'Hypertension and the Kidney' of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the Society for Vascular Medicine (SVM). This document updates previous consensus documents/scientific statements on FMD published in 2014 with full harmonization of the position of European and US experts. In addition to practical consensus-based clinical recommendations, including a consensus protocol for catheter-based angiography and percutaneous angioplasty for renal FMD, the document also includes the first analysis of the European/International FMD Registry and provides updated data from the US Registry for FMD. Finally, it provides insights on ongoing research programs and proposes future research directions for understanding this multifaceted arterial disease.

Keywords: aneurysm; cervical artery dissection; fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD); percutaneous angioplasty; pressure gradients; renovascular hypertension; spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiography / standards*
  • Angioplasty / adverse effects
  • Angioplasty / standards*
  • Cardiovascular Agents / adverse effects
  • Cardiovascular Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Clinical Decision-Making
  • Consensus
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia / diagnostic imaging*
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia / epidemiology
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia / therapy*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Cardiovascular Agents