Purpose of review: The aim of this study was to examine the synaptic biomarker neurogranin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in different stages of HIV infection and in relation to what is known about CSF neurogranin in other neurodegenerative diseases.
Recent findings: CSF concentrations of neurogranin are increased in Alzheimer's disease, but not in other neurodegenerative disorder such as Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and Lewy body dementia. Adults with HIV-associated dementia have been found to have decreased levels of neurogranin in the frontal cortex, which at least to some extent, may be mediated by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8. CSF neurogranin concentrations were in the same range for all groups of HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. This either indicates that synaptic injury is not an important part of HIV neuropathogenesis or that CSF neurogranin is not sensitive to the type of synaptic impairment present in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.
Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid; HIV; Neurogranin.