Impact of Sex Differences and Diabetes on Coronary Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Heart Disease

J Clin Med. 2019 Jan 16;8(1):98. doi: 10.3390/jcm8010098.


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) are the main cause of mortality in industrialized countries. Although it is well known that there is a difference in the risk of these diseases in women and men, current therapy does not consider the sexual dimorphism; i.e., differences in anatomical structures and metabolism of tissues. Here, we discuss how genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, cellular or molecular factors may explain the different CVD risk, especially in high-risk groups such as women with diabetes. We analyze whether sex may modify the effects of diabetes at risk of CAD. Finally, we discuss current diagnostic techniques in the evaluation of CAD and IHD in diabetic women.

Keywords: biomarkers; cell signaling; coronary artery disease; diabetes; gender; sex; women.

Publication types

  • Review