People living with HIV (PLHIV) are increasingly diagnosed with comorbidities which require increasing self-management. We examined the effect of a self-management intervention on neurocognitive behavioral processing. Twenty-nine PLHIV completed a two-group, 3-month randomized clinical trial testing a self-management intervention to improve physical activity and dietary intake. At baseline and 3 months later, everyone completed validated assessments of physical, diet, and neurocognitive processing (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]-derived network analyses). We used linear mixed effects modeling with a random intercept to examine the effect of the intervention. The intervention improved healthy eating (p = .08) but did not improve other self-management behaviors. There was a significant effect of the intervention on several aspects of neurocognitive processing including in the task positive network (TPN) differentiation (p = .047) and an increase in the default mode network (DMN) differentiation (p = .10). Self-management interventions may influence neurocognitive processing in PLHIV, but those changes were not associated with positive changes in self-management behavior.
Keywords: HIV; behavioral interventions; exercise; fMRI.