Canonical or classical transient receptor potential 4 and 5 proteins (TRPC4 and TRPC5) assemble as homomers or heteromerize with TRPC1 protein to form functional nonselective cationic channels with high calcium permeability. These channel complexes, TRPC1/4/5, are widely expressed in nervous and cardiovascular systems, also in other human tissues and cell types. It is debatable that TRPC1 protein is able to form a functional ion channel on its own. A recent explosion of molecular information about TRPC1/4/5 has emerged including knowledge of their distribution, function, and regulation suggesting these three members of the TRPC subfamily of TRP channels play crucial roles in human physiology and pathology. Therefore, these ion channels represent potential drug targets for cancer, epilepsy, anxiety, pain, and cardiac remodelling. In recent years, a number of highly selective small-molecule modulators of TRPC1/4/5 channels have been identified as being potent with improved pharmacological properties. This review will focus on recent remarkable small-molecule agonists: (-)-englerin A and tonantzitlolone and antagonists: Pico145 and HC7090, of TPRC1/4/5 channels. In addition, this work highlights other recently identified modulators of these channels such as the benzothiadiazine derivative, riluzole, ML204, clemizole, and AC1903. Together, these treasure troves of agonists and antagonists of TRPC1/4/5 channels provide valuable hints to comprehend the functional importance of these ion channels in native cells and in vivo animal models. Importantly, human diseases and disorders mediated by these proteins can be studied using these compounds to perhaps initiate drug discovery efforts to develop novel therapeutic agents.
© 2019 The British Pharmacological Society.
Conflict of interest statement
The author declares no conflicts of interest.
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