Neurodevelopmental outcome in cystic periventricular leukomalacia (CPVL) (30 cases)

Neuropediatrics. 1988 Aug;19(3):124-31. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1052415.


Thirty infant survivors had a wide spectrum of neonatal cystic periventricular leukomalacia (CPVL) diagnosed by ultrasound scans: 11 minor forms, 12 moderate forms, 7 major forms (categorized by both sagittal extent and coronal thickness). Eight cases were pure CPVL and 22 were associated with minor to moderate peri-intraventricular haemorrhage (PIVH), i.e. from (0-I) to (II-II). Mean gestational age: 31 +/- 2 weeks; mean birthweight: 1,532 +/- 356 g. The length of neurodevelopmental (ND) follow-up ranged from 13 months to 3 years and eight months. Of 11 children with minor CPVL, 9 were normal and two had moderate sequelae. Of 12 moderate CPVL, one was lost to follow-up, one had no motor disturbance but did have severe mental retardation (partial 7 p-), two were normal, one had a minor sequela, three had moderate and four had severe sequelae. Of the 7 major CPVL, one had moderate and 6 had severe sequelae. Cases including posterior lesions or presenting solely with such lesions had a worse outcome. In that range of PIVH, the outcome was related to the severity of CPVL and not to PIVH grade. All major late dilatations were associated with severe ND sequelae. Of 29 infants with early EEG tracings, the 7 children with early severe EEG abnormalities all had severe ND sequelae; 17 persistent EEG abnormalities, even mild, were associated with 9 severe and five moderate ND sequelae, and three normal outcomes. Combining US scans and EEG gives valuable prognostic information in minor and major CPVL, but less in the moderate forms.

MeSH terms

  • Brain / growth & development*
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Electroencephalography
  • Encephalomalacia / physiopathology*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant, Low Birth Weight
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Leukomalacia, Periventricular / diagnosis
  • Leukomalacia, Periventricular / physiopathology*
  • Neurologic Examination
  • Ultrasonography