Objective: To genotypically and phenotypically characterize a large pediatric myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) cohort to provide a solid frame of data for future evidence-based health management.
Methods: Among the 2,697 patients with genetically confirmed DM1 included in the French DM-Scope registry, children were enrolled between January 2010 and February 2016 from 24 centers. Comprehensive cross-sectional analysis of most relevant qualitative and quantitative variables was performed.
Results: We studied 314 children (52% females, with 55% congenital, 31% infantile, 14% juvenile form). The age at inclusion was inversely correlated with the CTG repeat length. The paternal transmission rate was higher than expected, especially in the congenital form (13%). A continuum of highly prevalent neurodevelopmental alterations was observed, including cognitive slowing (83%), attention deficit (64%), written language (64%), and spoken language (63%) disorders. Five percent exhibited autism spectrum disorders. Overall, musculoskeletal impairment was mild. Despite low prevalence, cardiorespiratory impairment could be life-threatening, and frequently occurred early in the first decade (25.9%). Gastrointestinal symptoms (27%) and cataracts (7%) were more frequent than expected, while endocrine or metabolic disorders were scarce.
Conclusions: The pedDM-Scope study details the main genotype and phenotype characteristics of the 3 DM1 pediatric subgroups. It highlights striking profiles that could be useful in health care management (including transition into adulthood) and health policy planning.
© 2019 American Academy of Neurology.