A model for the financial assessment of professional services in community pharmacy: A systematic review

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). Jan-Feb 2019;59(1):108-116.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2018.04.029. Epub 2018 Jul 4.


Objectives: Limited studies have assessed the financial benefit of professional pharmacy services (PPSs) to the community pharmacy as a business. These studies are crucial in developing an insight into the long-term sustainability and broader implementation of services. We reviewed the literature to identify measures and indicators used to assess the financial performance of professional services in community pharmacy.

Data sources: The literature search was undertaken in Pubmed and Scopus, and a gray literature search was performed in Google.com. References of the included papers were reviewed for other relevant studies.

Study selection: Articles were reviewed against the following exclusion criteria: 1) literature reviews, 2) studies not reporting quantitative financial data from community pharmacy, 3) studies not assessing a PPS, 4) studies lacking a methodology for the measurement and assessment of financial outcomes, and 5) cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, or cost-benefit analysis studies.

Data extraction: A piloted data extraction form was used. A selection of key data collected is as follows: 1) method of data collection and calculation, 2) currency, limitations for cost and revenue and method of data collection and method of calculation, 3) standardized currency value for the results reported, 4) professional services: number assessed, type of service, name of services, nature of services, implementation stage reported, financial result, the frequency of service, costs, sources of revenue, net total cost, net total revenue, break-even point, break-even price, net profit and loss.

Results: The 21 studies included used different methodologies and indicators to financially assess PPSs. This has led to the development of a model for assessing PPSs composed of the key financial elements identified in this systematic review.

Conclusion: From this review, we propose a model that provides a structured approach for pharmacists to manage the financial performance of services.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Community Pharmacy Services / economics*
  • Humans
  • Models, Economic*