The ability to generate T cells from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has the potential to transform autologous T cell immunotherapy by facilitating universal, off-the-shelf cell products. However, differentiation of human PSCs into mature, conventional T cells has been challenging with existing methods. We report that a continuous 3D organoid system induced an orderly sequence of commitment and differentiation from PSC-derived embryonic mesoderm through hematopoietic specification and efficient terminal differentiation to naive CD3+CD8αβ+ and CD3+CD4+ conventional T cells with a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Introduction of an MHC class I-restricted TCR in PSCs produced naive, antigen-specific CD8αβ+ T cells that lacked endogenous TCR expression and showed anti-tumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Functional assays and RNA sequencing aligned PSC-derived T cells with primary naive CD8+ T cells. The PSC-artificial thymic organoid (ATO) system presented here is an efficient platform for generating functional, mature T cells from human PSCs.
Keywords: 3D organoids; T cell development; conventional T cells; hematopoiesis; human pluripotent stem cells; immunotherapy; in vitro; lymphopoiesis.
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