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. 2019 Aug;50(2):347-364.
doi: 10.1002/jmri.26645. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

APT-weighted MRI: Techniques, Current Neuro Applications, and Challenging Issues

Free PMC article

APT-weighted MRI: Techniques, Current Neuro Applications, and Challenging Issues

Jinyuan Zhou et al. J Magn Reson Imaging. .
Free PMC article


Amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging is a molecular MRI technique that generates image contrast based predominantly on the amide protons in mobile cellular proteins and peptides that are endogenous in tissue. This technique, the most studied type of chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging, has been used successfully for imaging of protein content and pH, the latter being possible due to the strong dependence of the amide proton exchange rate on pH. In this article we briefly review the basic principles and recent technical advances of APTw imaging, which is showing promise clinically, especially for characterizing brain tumors and distinguishing recurrent tumor from treatment effects. Early applications of this approach to stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury are also illustrated. Finally, we outline the technical challenges for clinical APT-based imaging and discuss several controversies regarding the origin of APTw imaging signals in vivo. Level of Evidence: 3 Technical Efficacy Stage: 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:347-364.

Keywords: APT-weighted imaging; CEST imaging; brain tumor; molecular imaging; stroke.

Conflict of interest statement

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

J.Z. and P.C.M.v.Z. are co-inventors on a patent for the APT MRI technology. This patent is owned and managed by Johns Hopkins University. P.C.M.v.Z. is a paid lecturer for Philips Medical Systems. This arrangement has been approved by The Johns Hopkins University in accordance with its Conflict of Interest policies.

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