Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) in thyroid gland surgery provides real-time feedback to the endocrine surgeon regarding the electrophysiological consequences of surgical manipulation of the laryngeal nerves. The goal of monitoring modalities is to detect surgical or physiological insults to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) while they are still reversible or, in cases where prevention is not an option, to minimize the damage done to these structures during thyroidectomy. In recent decades, monitoring of the RLN has become a fundamental part of endocrine surgery. IONM is a feasible procedure in both open and endoscopic, robotic thyroidectomy. Experts in IONM have organized a working group of general, endocrine, head and neck ENT surgeons and endocrinologists (International Neural Monitoring Study Group; INMSG) to develop standards for practicing this technique in endoscopic and robotic thyroidectomy. This paper presents recent clinical and research experience with intraoperative neural monitoring for thyroid gland surgery.