Cumulative Incidence of West Nile Virus Infection, Continental United States, 1999-2016

Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Feb;25(2):325-327. doi: 10.3201/eid2502.180765.


Using reported case data from ArboNET and previous seroprevalence data stratified by age and sex, we conservatively estimate that ≈7 million persons in the United States have been infected with West Nile virus since its introduction in 1999. Our data support the need for public health interventions and improved surveillance.

Keywords: ArboNET; United States; West Nile fever; West Nile neuroinvasive disease; West Nile virus; asymptomatic infections; incidence; neuroinvasive disease; seroprevalence; vector-borne infections; viruses; zoonoses.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Female
  • HIV Seroprevalence
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Public Health Surveillance
  • United States / epidemiology
  • West Nile Fever / epidemiology*
  • West Nile Fever / history
  • West Nile Fever / virology*
  • West Nile virus*
  • Young Adult