Previous studies suggest that children who progress to type 1 diabetes (T1D) later in life already have an altered serum lipid molecular profile at birth. Here, we compared cord blood lipidome across the three study groups: children who progressed to T1D (PT1D; n = 30), children who developed at least one islet autoantibody but did not progress to T1D during the follow-up (P1Ab; n = 33), and their age-matched controls (CTR; n = 38). We found that phospholipids, specifically sphingomyelins, were lower in T1D progressors when compared to P1Ab and the CTR. Cholesterol esters remained higher in PT1D when compared to other groups. A signature comprising five lipids was predictive of the risk of progression to T1D, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.83. Our findings provide further evidence that the lipidomic profiles of newborn infants who progress to T1D later in life are different from lipidomic profiles in P1Ab and CTR.
Keywords: autoimmunity; cord blood; lipidomics; metabolomics; type 1 diabetes.