The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of titanium bone fixations on mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione metabolism, and selected markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress in the periosteum-like tissue of patients treated with mandible fractures. The study group consisted of 30 patients with bilateral fractures of the mandible body eligible for surgical treatment. Our study is the first one that indicates disturbances of mitochondrial activity as well as a higher production of ROS in the periosteum-like tissue covering titanium fixations of the mandible. We also found significantly higher levels of reduced glutathione and enhanced activity of glutathione reductase in the periosteum homogenates of patients in the study group compared to the control group. Levels of nitrosative (S-nitrosothiols, peroxynitrite, nitrotyrosine) and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, dityrosine, kynurenine, and N-formylkynurenine) were statistically elevated in periosteum-like tissue covering titanium fixations. Although exposure to titanium fixations induces local antioxidant mechanisms, patients suffer oxidative damage, and in the periosteum-like tissue the phenomenon of metallosis was observed. Titanium implants cause oxidative/nitrosative stress as well as disturbances in mitochondrial activity.
Keywords: metallosis; nitrosative stress; oxidative stress; titanium fixations.