Increasing evidence suggests circular RNAs (circRNAs) exert critical functions in tumor progression via sponging miRNAs (microRNAs). However, the role of circRNAs in breast cancer remains unclear. Here we systematically analyzed the circular RNAs in breast cancer based on their characteristic in sponging disease-specific miRNAs and identified hsa_circ_001783 as a top ranked circRNA in our computation and verified its high expression in both breast cancer cells and cancer tissue. A higher level of hsa_circ_001783 was significantly correlated with heavier tumor burden and poorer prognosis of patients with breast cancer. Knockdown of this circRNA remarkably inhibited the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. Importantly, hsa_circ_001783 promoted progression of breast cancer cells via sponging miR-200c-3p. Taken together, hsa_circ_001783 may serve as a novel prognostic and therapeutic target for breast cancer.