Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs at high incidence in abdominal cancer surgery; therefore, a 4-week postoperative VTE prophylaxis is advocated. However, most patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have more favorable prognoses. This study aimed to determine the incidence of VTE in patients with abdominal NETs, compare these rates to other abdominal malignancies, and identify VTE risk factors.
Methods: The ACS-NSQIP database was queried to identify patients with abdominal NETs and other abdominal malignancies who underwent surgery from 2008 to 2015. A 30-day postoperative VTE incidence for each group was compared. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify VTE risk factors.
Results: Of the 7226 operations for patients with benign (2154) and malignant (5072) abdominal NETs, 144 patients experienced a VTE without significant differences between groups. Subgroup analysis revealed a spectrum of VTE rates. Compared to VTE rates of other abdominal malignancies, patients with benign (1.1% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001) or malignant (1.7% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001) non-pancreatic abdominal NETs had significantly lower rates, malignant pancreatic NETs (PNETs) (3.4% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.03) had significantly higher rates, and benign PNETs (3.2% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.21) had comparable rates. Multivariable analysis identified pre-operative albumin (p < 0.001), bleeding disorders (p < 0.001), operative time (p < 0.001), and having a PNET (p = 0.04) as risk factors for VTE in abdominal NET patients.
Conclusion: Routine extended VTE prophylaxis after surgery may be necessary in PNETs, but probably unnecessary in other abdominal NETs. However, clinicians should use risk factors identified in this study when considering to forego extended VTE prophylaxis in NET patients.
Keywords: NSQIP; Neuroendocrine tumors; Venous thromboembolism.