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Review
, 25, 666-674

The Association Between Vitamin D Status, Vitamin D Supplementation, Sunlight Exposure, and Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Review

The Association Between Vitamin D Status, Vitamin D Supplementation, Sunlight Exposure, and Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Zonglei Zhou et al. Med Sci Monit.

Abstract

BACKGROUND This literature review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the association between deficiency of vitamin D, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and Parkinson's disease, and whether vitamin D from supplements and sunlight improves the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS A literature review and meta-analysis were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Systematic literature review was performed using databases that included the Web of Science, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase. The Jadad scale (the Oxford quality scoring system) and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) were used to evaluate the quality of the studies. RESULTS Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency (<30 ng/mL) (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.29-2.43; P<0.001) and deficiency (<20 ng/mL) (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.98-3.27; P<0.001) were significantly associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease when compared with normal controls Sunlight exposure (³15 min/week) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (OR, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.00-0.10; P<0.001). The use of vitamin D supplements was effective in increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (SMD, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.40-2.18; P<0.001), but had no significant effect on motor function (MD, -1.82; 95% CI, -5.10-1.45; P=0.275) in patients with Parkinson's disease. CONCLUSIONS Insufficiency and deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and reduced exposure to sunlight were significantly associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. However, vitamin D supplements resulted in no significant benefits in improving motor function for patients with Parkinson's disease.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest

None.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Flow diagram of the study design and screening of the published literature.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Forest plots of the association between vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and the risk of Parkinson’s disease. a) Forest plots of the association between vitamin D insufficiency and the risk of Parkinson’s disease. b) Forest plots of the association between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of Parkinson’s disease.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Forest plots of the association between sunlight exposure and the risk of Parkinson’s disease.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Forest plots of the effects of vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D levels in patients with Parkinson’s disease.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Forest plots of the effects of vitamin D supplementation on motor function in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

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