Nonclinical Exon Skipping Studies with 2'-O-Methyl Phosphorothioate Antisense Oligonucleotides in mdx and mdx-utrn-/- Mice Inspired by Clinical Trial Results

Nucleic Acid Ther. 2019 Apr;29(2):92-103. doi: 10.1089/nat.2018.0759. Epub 2019 Jan 23.


Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe, progressive muscle-wasting disease that is caused by mutations that abolish the production of functional dystrophin protein. The exon skipping approach aims to restore the disrupted dystrophin reading frame, to allow the production of partially functional dystrophins, such as found in the less severe Becker muscular dystrophy. Exon skipping is achieved by antisense oligonucleotides (AONs). Several chemical modifications have been tested in nonclinical and clinical trials. The morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer eteplirsen has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, whereas clinical development with the 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate (2OMePS) AON drisapersen was recently stopped. In this study, we aimed to study various aspects of 2OMePS AONs in nonclinical animal studies. We show that while efficiency of exon skipping restoration is comparable in young and older C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx/J (mdx/BL10) mice, functional improvement was only observed for younger treated mice. Muscle quality did not affect exon skipping efficiency as exon skip and dystrophin levels were similar between mdx/BL10 and more severely affected, age-matched D2-mdx mice. We further report that treadmill running increases AON uptake and dystrophin levels in mdx/BL10 mice. Finally, we show that even low levels of exon skipping and dystrophin restoration are sufficient to significantly increase the survival of mdx-utrn-/- mice from 70 to 97 days.

Keywords: antisense oligonucleotide; dystrophin; exon skipping; mouse model.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Dystrophin / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Dystrophin / genetics*
  • Exons / drug effects
  • Exons / genetics
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred mdx
  • Morpholinos / genetics
  • Morpholinos / pharmacology
  • Muscular Atrophy, Spinal
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne / genetics*
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne / therapy
  • Oligonucleotides / pharmacology
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense / genetics
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology*
  • Organothiophosphorus Compounds / pharmacology
  • Utrophin / genetics*


  • Dystrophin
  • Morpholinos
  • Oligonucleotides
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense
  • Organothiophosphorus Compounds
  • PRO051
  • Utrn protein, mouse
  • Utrophin
  • methylphosphonothiolate
  • eteplirsen