Resistance training results in a wide spectrum of adaptations in various physiological systems. Increases in muscle size and strength, changes in body composition, neuroendocrine function and cardiovascular responses have been observed following resistance training. Additionally, resistance training may be an effective means by which the incidence of sports injuries can be reduced. The physiological alterations induced by resistance training appear to be specific to the number of sets and repetitions and exercises performed. Thus, special attention is required when developing the exercise prescription for resistance training.