Prevalence of oral mucosal disorders during pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

J Oral Pathol Med. 2019 Apr;48(4):270-277. doi: 10.1111/jop.12831. Epub 2019 Feb 12.


Objective: To assess the prevalence of oral mucosal disorders during pregnancy.

Methods: Observational studies were selected by two reviewers in a two-phase process. Search strategies were applied at CINAHL, LILACS, LIVIVO, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, OpenGrey, and ProQuest. The risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Checklist for Studies Reporting Prevalence Data. Synthesis of results was calculated by the software R Statistics version 3.5.1 (The R Foundation, Vienna, Austria). Confidence in cumulative evidence was assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria.

Results: Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria and were selected for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis, of which 5935 participants were enrolled. The overall prevalence of oral mucosal disorders was 11.8%. Gingival hyperplasia (17.1%), morsicatio buccarum (10%), oral candidiasis (4.4%), pyogenic granuloma (3%), and benign migratory glossitis (2.8%) were the most prevalent lesions. The overall risk of bias was considered moderate, and the quality of evidence was very low.

Conclusion: Disorders of the oral mucosa were present in approximately 1 out of 10 pregnant women. Gingival hyperplasia was the most prevalent lesion. Further studies should apply homogeneous methodology to improve the quality of evidence.

Keywords: evidence-based dentistry; oral disorders; pregnancy; systematic review.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mouth Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Mouth Mucosa / pathology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence