Conditions of metabolic stress dysregulate the NAD metabolome. By restoring NAD, nicotinamide riboside (NR) provides resistance to such conditions. We tested the hypotheses that postpartum might dysregulate maternal NAD and that increasing systemic NAD with NR might benefit mothers and offspring. In postpartum mothers, the liver NAD metabolome is depressed while blood increases circulation of NAD metabolites to enable a >20-fold increase in mammary NAD+ and NADP+. Lactation and NR synergize in stimulating prolactin synthesis and mammary biosynthetic programs. NR supplementation of new mothers increases lactation and nursing behaviors and stimulates maternal transmission of macronutrients, micronutrients, and BDNF into milk. Pups of NR-supplemented mothers are advantaged in glycemic control, size at weaning, and synaptic pruning. Adult offspring of mothers supplemented during nursing retain advantages in physical performance, anti-anxiety, spatial memory, delayed onset of behavioral immobility, and promotion of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Thus, postgestational maternal micronutrition confers lasting advantages to offspring.
Keywords: BDNF; NAD; adult hippocampal neurogenesis; caudate-putamen; homeorhesis; lactation; metabolic stress; nicotinamide riboside; postpartum; prolactin.
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