The Potential to Change Pacing and Performance During 4000-m Cycling Time Trials Using Hyperoxia and Inspired Gas-Content Deception

Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019 Jul 1;14(7):949-957. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2018-0335.


Purpose: Determine if a series of trials with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) content deception could improve 4000-m cycling time-trial (TT) performance.

Methods: Fifteen trained male cyclists (mean ± SD: body mass 74.2 ± 8.0 kg; peak oxygen uptake 62 ± 6 completed six, 4000-m cycling TTs in a semi-randomised order. After a familiarisation TT, cyclists were informed in two initial trials they were inspiring normoxic air (NORM, FiO2: 0.21), however in one trial (deception condition) they inspired hyperoxic air (NORM-DEC, FiO2: 0.36). During two subsequent TTs, cyclists were informed they were inspiring hyperoxic air (HYPER, FiO2: 0.36), but in one trial normoxic air was inspired (HYPER-DEC). In the final TT (NORM-INFORM) the deception was revealed, and cyclists were asked to reproduce their best TT performance while inspiring normoxic air.

Results: Greater power output and faster performances occurred when cyclists inspired hyperoxic air in both truthful (HYPER) and deceptive (NORM-DEC) trials compared to NORM (P < 0.001). However, performance only improved in NORM-INFORM (377 W [95% CI 325, 429]) vs NORM (352 W [299, 404]), P < 0.001) when participants (n = 4) completed the trials in the following order: NORM-DEC, NORM, HYPER-DEC, HYPER.

Conclusions: Cycling performance improved with acute exposure to hyperoxia. Mechanisms for the improvement were likely physiological, however improvement in a deception trial suggests an additional placebo effect may be present. Finally, a particular sequence of oxygen deception trials may have built psycho-physiological belief in cyclists such that performance improved in a subsequent normoxic trial.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Athletic Performance / physiology*
  • Athletic Performance / psychology*
  • Bicycling / physiology*
  • Bicycling / psychology*
  • Deception
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • Hyperoxia
  • Male
  • Oxygen / administration & dosage*
  • Oxygen Consumption


  • Oxygen