The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of vein visualization devices and the routine method for insertion of peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) in preterm infants. The study was conducted between June 2016 and April 2017 in the neonatal intensive care unit of Bakırköy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital. Participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to the infrared group (n = 30), the transilluminator group (n = 30), or the control group (n = 30). Time to successful cannulation was significantly lower for the infrared group (8.70 ± 2.56 seconds) than for the transilluminator group (45.27 ± 30.83 seconds) and the control group (17.30 ± 8.40 seconds) (P ≤ .001). Success of the first attempt was significantly higher in the infrared and transilluminator groups than in the control group (P ≤ .05). Dwell time of the PIVC in place was significantly higher in the infrared group than in the transilluminator and control groups (P ≤ .05). Neonatal Infant Pain Scale scores were significantly higher in the transilluminator group (0.60 ± 0.855) than in the infrared (0.33 ± 0.182) and control groups (0.33 ± 0.182) while seeking an appropriate vein (P ≤ .001). The use of an infrared device provides efficacy in time to successful cannulation, success of the first attempt, length of the time the catheter is in place, and technique-related pain.