Objective: The prevalence of obesity has created a plethora of questionnaires characterizing psychological aspects of eating behavior, such as reward-related eating (RRE). The Reward-based Eating Drive questionnaires (RED-9, RED-13) broadly and deeply assess the RRE construct. However, large-sample research designs require shorter questionnaires that capture RRE quickly and precisely. This study sought to develop a brief, reliable, and valid version of the RED questionnaire.
Methods: All-subset correlation was used to find a subset that maximally associated with the full RED-13 in two separate samples. Results were validated in a third independent sample. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and ability to explain variance in external outcomes were also assessed.
Results: A five-item questionnaire (RED-X5) correlated strongly with RED-13 in the independent sample (r = 0.95). RED-X5 demonstrated high internal consistency (omega total ≥ 0.80) and 6-month test-retest reliability (r = 0.72). RED-X5 accurately reproduced known associations between RED-13 and BMI, diabetes status, and craving for sweet and savory foods. As a novel finding, RED questionnaires predicted laboratory intake of chips.
Conclusions: RED-X5 is a short, reliable, and valid measure of the RRE construct and can be readily implemented in large-sample research designs in which questionnaire space is limited.
© 2019 The Obesity Society.