Microelectrode implants are an important tool in neuroscience research and in developing brain⁻machine interfaces. Data from rodents have consistently shown that astrocytes are recruited to the area surrounding implants, forming a glial scar that increases electrode impedance and reduces chronic utility. However, studies in non-human primates are scarce, with none to date in marmosets. We used glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining to characterize the acute and chronic response of the marmoset brain to microelectrodes. By using densitometry, we showed that marmoset astrocytes surround brain implants and that a glial scar is formed over time, with significant increase in the chronic condition relative to the acute condition animal.
Keywords: astrocyte; gliosis; marmoset; microelectrode.