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, 16 (3)

Continuous and Periodic Monitoring System of Surface Water Quality of an Impounding Reservoir: Sulejow Reservoir, Poland

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Continuous and Periodic Monitoring System of Surface Water Quality of an Impounding Reservoir: Sulejow Reservoir, Poland

Aleksandra Ziemińska-Stolarska et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

Abstract

The paper presents results of water quality monitoring conducted within the frame of the MONSUL project. The main goal was to analyse and assess the impact of factors determining the ecological status of a dam reservoir on the basis of the Sulejow Reservoir located in Central Poland. The project implementation plan based on comprehensive research-based monitoring covered the following parameters characterising the ecological potential of the reservoir: water temperature, pH, oxygen concentration, chlorophyll “a” and blue-green algae, concentration of ammonium ion, nitrate nitrogen phosphates as well as total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. The parameters were measured with a mobile and stationary monitoring system and supplemented by an off-line analysis of water samples in the laboratory. The study was carried out during two seasons: May–October 2015 and April–November 2016; the results were analysed also with regard to the weather conditions. Despite the similar temperatures of water and air in the analysed seasons, significant differences were observed for atmospheric precipitation; 2015 was a dry year, and the climatic water balance for the analysed area was negative, which caused limited surface runoff and decreased the concentrations of nutrient in the reservoir waters. Data from continuous monitoring, supplemented with the results of laboratory measurements, indicated that the values of TOC (Total Organic Carbon) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) parameters were within the purity class I; exceedances refer to the BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) value, which confirmed the presence of biodegradable organic compounds in the reservoir waters. The values of chlorophyll “a” and the presence of algae during the vegetation season testify to eutrophication of the Sulejow Reservoir.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Localization and photography of the stationary system for water quality measurements, installed on the Sulejow Reservoir.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Mobile monitoring measurement system, (a): Bench with an extension arm; (b): probe with a weight.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Profile of changes in chlorophyll concentration (μg/dm3) in the area of the Sulejow Reservoir, obtained with a mobile measurement system on 19 July 2016.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Location of water sampling points for laboratory tests.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Profile of water temperature changes in the northern part of the Sulejow Reservoir between May–October 2015 and 2016.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Profile of changes in chlorophyll concentration in the northern part of the Sulejow Reservoir in the period April–October in 2015 and 2016 (chlorophyll concentration in μg/dm3, water temperature in °C).
Figure 7
Figure 7
Diagram of changes in the water temperature and blue-green algae (BGA) concentration in the north part of the Sulejow Reservoir, in both analysed seasons (BGA concentration (μg/dm3); water temperature (°C).
Figure 8
Figure 8
Spatial distribution of water temperature in the Sulejow Reservoir, between June and September 2015 and 2016 (yr: year).
Figure 9
Figure 9
Spatial distribution of chlorophyll concentration in the Sulejow Reservoir between June and September 2015 and 2016.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Spatial distribution of BGA (blue-green algae) concentration in the Sulejow Reservoir between June and September 2015 and 2016.
Figure 11
Figure 11
Changes in the concentration of phosphates in the Sulejow Reservoir in 2015 and 2016.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Changes in the concentration of nitrate nitrogen in the Sulejow Reservoir in 2015 and 2016.
Figure 13
Figure 13
Changes in the concentration of TOC (Total Organic Carbon, (a,b)) (mg C/dm3), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, (c,d)) (mg O2/dm3) and BO D (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, (e,f)) (mg O2/dm3) in the Sulejow Reservoir in 2015 and 2016.

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