Integrated FISH, Karyotyping and aCGH Analyses for Effective Prenatal Diagnosis of Common Aneuploidies and Other Cytogenomic Abnormalities

Med Sci (Basel). 2019 Jan 23;7(2):16. doi: 10.3390/medsci7020016.


Current prenatal genetic evaluation showed a significantly increase in non-invasive screening and the reduction of invasive diagnostic procedures. To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy on detecting common aneuploidies, structural chromosomal rearrangements, and pathogenic copy number variants (pCNV), we performed a retrospective analysis on a case series initially analyzed by aneuvysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and karyotyping then followed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Of the 386 cases retrieved from the past decade, common aneuploidies were detected in 137 cases (35.5%), other chromosomal structural rearrangements were detected in four cases (1%), and pCNV were detected in five cases (1.3%). The relative frequencies for common aneuploidies suggested an under detection of sex chromosome aneuploidies. Approximately 9.5% of cases with common aneuploidies showed a mosaic pattern. Inconsistent results between FISH and karyotyping were noted in cases with pseudo-mosaicism introduced by culture artifact or variable cellular proliferation from cells with mosaic karyotypic complements under in vitro cell culture. Based on findings from this case series, cell-based FISH and karyotyping should be performed to detect common aneuploidies, structural chromosomal abnormalities, and mosaic pattern. DNA-based aCGH and reflex FISH should be performed to detect and confirm genomic imbalances and pCNV. Practice points to ensure the diagnostic accuracy and efficacy were summarized.

Keywords: amniotic fluid (AF); aneuploidies; array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH); chorionic villus sampling (CVS); confined placental mosaicism (CPM); fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); karyotype; pathogenic copy number variants (pCNV); pseudo-mosaicism; true fetal mosaicism (TFM).