Objective: Data from local cancer registries were pooled to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2015. Methods: Data submitted from 501 cancer registries were checked & evaluated according to the criteria of data quality control, and 368 registries' data were qualified for the final analysis. Data were stratified by area (urban/rural), sex, age group and cancer sites, and combined with national population data to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2015. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized. Results: Total population covered by 368 cancer registries were 309 553 499 (148 804 626 in urban and 160 748 873 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases (MV) and the percentage of death certificate-only cases (DCO) accounted for 69.34% and 2.09%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.61. About 3 929 000 new cancer cases were reported in 2015 and the crude incidence rate was 285.83 per 100 000 population (males and females were 305.47 and 265.21 per 100 000 population). Age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 190.64 and 186.39 per 100 000 population, respectively, with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 21.44%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 304.96/100 000 and 196.09/100 000 in urban areas and 261.40/100 000 and 182.70/100 000 in rural areas, respectively. About 2 338 000 cancer deaths were reported in 2015 and the cancer mortality was 170.05/100 000 (210.10/100 000 in males and 128.00/100 000 in females). Age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 106.72/100 000 and 105.84/100 000, respectively, with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 11.94%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC were 172.61/100 000 and 103.65/100 000 in urban areas and 166.79/100 000 and 110.76/100 000 in rural areas, respectively. The most common cancer cases including lung, gastric, colorectal, liver and female breast, the top 10 cancer incidence accounted for about 76.70% of all cancer new cases. The most common cancer deaths including lung, liver, gastric, esophageal and colorectal, the top 10 cancer deaths accounted for about 83.00% of all cancer deaths. Conclusions: The burden of cancer showed a continuous upward trend in China. Cancer prevention and control faces the problem of the disparity in different areas and different cancer burden between men and women. The cancer pattern in China presents the coexistence of the cancer patterns in developed and developing countries. The situation of cancer prevention and control is still serious in China.
目的： 汇总分析各省肿瘤登记处上报的2015年恶性肿瘤登记数据，估算全国2015年恶性肿瘤流行情况。 方法： 收集整理各省501个登记处上报的2015年肿瘤登记数据，通过数据质量的审核和评估，以符合标准的368个登记处数据为基础，按地区(城乡)、性别、年龄别及不同肿瘤的发病率和死亡率分层，结合全国人口数据，估算全国2015年恶性肿瘤发病、死亡数据。标准人口采用2000年全国人口普查数据和Segi′s世界标准人口。 结果： 纳入分析的368个登记处共覆盖人口309 553 499人(其中城市148 804 626人，农村160 748 873人)。病理诊断比例为69.34%，只有死亡证明书比例为2.09%，死亡发病比为0.61。据估计，全国2015年新发恶性肿瘤病例约392.9万例，全国恶性肿瘤发病率为285.83/10万(男性305.47/10万，女性265.21/10万)，中国人口标化率(简称中标率)为190.64/10万，世界人口标化率(简称世标率)为186.39/10万，累积率(0～74岁)为21.44%。城市地区发病率为304.96/10万，中标发病率为196.09/10万；农村地区发病率为261.40/10万，中标发病率为182.70/10万。全国2015年恶性肿瘤死亡病例约233.8万，死亡率为170.05/10万(男性210.10/10万，女性128.00/10万)，中标死亡率为106.72/10万，世标死亡率为105.84/10万，累积死亡率(0～74岁)为11.94%。城市地区死亡率为172.61/10万，中标死亡率为103.65/10万；农村地区恶性肿瘤死亡率为166.79/10万，中标死亡率为110.76/10万。中国常见的恶性肿瘤为肺癌、胃癌、结直肠癌、肝癌和女性乳腺癌等，前10位发病约占全部恶性肿瘤新发病例的76.70%。肺癌、肝癌、胃癌、食管癌和结直肠癌等是主要的肿瘤死因，前10位死亡约占全部恶性肿瘤死亡病例的83.00%。 结论： 中国癌症负担总体仍呈现持续上升趋势，癌症负担的城乡差异及男女性别差异明显，癌谱呈现发达国家癌谱与发展中国家癌谱共存的局面，癌症防控形势依然严峻。.
Keywords: Cancer registry; China; Incidence; Mortality; Neoplasm.