The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc, a fibrocartilaginous structure between the mandible and temporal bone, is implicated in temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). TMDs symptomatically affect approximately 25% of the population, of which 70% have internal derangement of the disc. Treatments lack efficiency, motivating novel therapies, including tissue-engineering toward TMJ disc regeneration. Recent developments in scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, cell sources, and biochemical and mechanical stimulation have resulted in constructs exhibiting native tissue mechanics. Safety and efficacy of tissue-engineered implants have shown promising results in orthotopic animal studies. However, many hurdles need to be overcome in tissue-engineering approaches, and clinical and regulatory pathways. Future studies present an opportunity for clinicians and researchers to work together toward safe and effective clinical trials.
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