Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, which is used as a spice globally has a long history of medicinal use that stimulates investigators to assess its potential roles as an adjuvant therapy or alternative medicine in a range of diseases. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, and antiulcer effects of ginger have been proven in many scientific studies, and some of the ancient applications of ginger as a home remedy has been confirmed in human. In this review, we summarized the current evidence on the effects of ginger consumption on gastrointestinal disorders based on clinical trials. Our data indicate that divided lower daily dosage of 1500 mg ginger is beneficial for nausea relief. Because of limited number of studies on some other gastrointestinal disorders, the results may not be as much powered as to find significant results. Therefore, more extensive and well-controlled human studies of ginger or its standard extracts are required to demonstrate its efficacy as a gastroprotective agent. Dose-finding studies should be undertaken to accurately determine the effective dose and preparation of ginger in further clinical trials protocol.
Keywords: Zerumbone; Zingiber; dyspepsia; fatty liver; gastrointestinal cancer; gastrointestinal mucosa; gastroprotective; ginger; gingerol; irritable bowel syndrome; nausea; shogaol; swallowing; vomiting gastric emptying.