The dramatic increase in food allergy prevalence and severity globally is demanding effective strategies. Food allergy derives from a defect in immune tolerance mechanisms. Immune tolerance is modulated by gut microbiota composition and function, and gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with the development of food allergy. Selected probiotic strains could act on immune tolerance mechanisms. The mechanisms are multiple and still not completely defined. Increasing evidence is providing useful information on the choice of optimal bacterial species/strains, dosage, and timing for intervention. The increased knowledge on the crucial role played by gut microbiota-derived metabolites, such as butyrate, is also opening the way to a post-biotic approach in the stimulation of immune tolerance.
Keywords: Butyrate; Cow’s milk allergy; Gut microbiota; Immune tolerance; Post-biotics; Probiotics.