The effects of thyroid hormones on memory impairment and Alzheimer's disease

J Cell Physiol. 2019 Sep;234(9):14633-14640. doi: 10.1002/jcp.28198. Epub 2019 Jan 24.


Thyroid hormones (THs) have a wide and important range of effects within the central nervous system beginning from fetal life and continuing throughout the adult life. Thyroid disorders are one of the major causes of cognitive impairment including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies in recent years have indicated an association between hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism and AD. Despite available evidence for this association, it remains unclear whether thyroid dysfunction results from or contributes to the progression of AD. This review discusses the role of THs in learning and memory and summarizes the studies that have linked thyroid function and AD. Eventually, we elaborate how THs may be effective in treating AD by putting forward potential mechanisms.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; cognition; hyperthyroidism; hypothyroidism; thyroid hormones.

Publication types

  • Review