Objectives: This study aimed to retrospectively assess the clinical outcome with nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam for lower urinary tract infections (UTI) in men. Patients treated with trimethoprim were also included for comparison.
Methods: All prescriptions of the study antibiotics to adult men in Uppsala County, Sweden, during 2012 were extracted. Data on patient characteristics, therapy, clinical outcome and microbiological results were obtained from the electronic medical records. The relative impact of antibiotic therapy, patient factors and pathogens on clinical outcome was assessed with univariate logistic regression using a 95% confidence interval (CI).
Results: 832 prescriptions were identified, and 171 patients treated with nitrofurantoin (n = 69), pivmecillinam (n = 57) and trimethoprim (n = 45) met the inclusion criteria. Treatment failure occurred in one patient treated with nitrofurantoin and in four patients treated with pivmecillinam. New prescriptions of UTI antibiotics and relapse within 3 months after completion of therapy were more frequent with nitrofurantoin (34% and 15%) and pivmecillinam (30% and 17%) than trimethoprim (22 and 7%). However, these differences were not statistically significant and substantial heterogeneity was noted between the treatment groups. Urinary tract catheterization was associated with a higher risk for new antibiotic prescriptions (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14-4.80; P = 0.022) and prostate cancer was associated with a higher incidence of relapse (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.09-8.29; P = 0.042).
Conclusions: The clinical outcome with nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam was acceptable in comparison with the results of previous studies. These antibiotics are suitable for empirical treatment of lower UTI in men considering their high activity against Escherichia coli and limited impact on the intestinal microbiota.