Streamlined SMFA and mosquito dark-feeding regime significantly improve malaria transmission-blocking assay robustness and sensitivity

Malar J. 2019 Jan 25;18(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s12936-019-2663-8.


Background: The development of malaria transmission-blocking strategies including the generation of malaria refractory mosquitoes to replace the wild populations through means of gene drives hold great promise. The standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) that involves mosquito feeding on parasitized blood through an artificial membrane system is a vital tool for evaluating the efficacy of transmission-blocking interventions. However, despite the availability of several published protocols, the SMFA remains highly variable and broadly insensitive.

Methods: The SMFA protocol was optimized through coordinated culturing of Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes and Plasmodium falciparum parasite coupled with placing mosquitoes under a strict dark regime before, during, and after the gametocyte feed.

Results: A detailed description of essential steps is provided toward synchronized generation of highly fit An. coluzzii mosquitoes and P. falciparum gametocytes in preparation for an SMFA. A dark-infection regime that emulates the natural vector-parasite interaction system is described, which results in a significant increase in the infection intensity and prevalence. Using this optimal SMFA pipeline, a series of putative transmission-blocking antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were screened, confirming that melittin and magainin can interfere with P. falciparum development in the vector.

Conclusion: A robust SMFA protocol that enhances the evaluation of interventions targeting human malaria transmission in laboratory setting is reported. Melittin and magainin are identified as highly potent antiparasitic AMPs that can be used for the generation of refractory Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

Keywords: Anopheles coluzzii; Anopheles gambiae; Gametocyte; Gene drive; Malaria; Mosquito population replacement; Plasmodium falciparum; Standard membrane feeding assay.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anopheles / physiology*
  • Antimalarials*
  • Communicable Disease Control / instrumentation
  • Communicable Disease Control / methods*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Genetic Engineering*
  • Malaria, Falciparum / parasitology
  • Malaria, Falciparum / prevention & control*
  • Mosquito Vectors / physiology
  • Peptides / genetics*
  • Plasmodium falciparum / physiology*


  • Antimalarials
  • Peptides