Coronary microembolization (CME) is a common complication seen during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). CME-induced myocardiac inflammation is the primary cause of myocardiac injury. Dysregulated miR-142-3p has been implicated in multiple cardiovascular diseases and is significantly downregulated in CME-induced myocardial injury. However, the role of miR-142-3p in CME-induced myocardial injury is unclear. This study herein built a porcine CME model by infusing microembolization spheres into the left anterior descending branch via a microcatheter, and detected the downregulation of miR-142-3p in the myocardial tissues of CME pigs. Echocardiography, hematoxylin basic fuchsin picric acid (HBFP) staining, and western blotting of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 showed that the pharmacological overexpression of miR-142-3p using agomiR has improved cardiac function and attenuated CME-induced myocardiac inflammatory response, while its inhibition using antagomiR demonstrated inverse effects. Moreover, in vitro experiments demonstrated IRAK-1 as a direct target gene of miR-142-3p. Luciferase reporter assays, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting demonstrated its effects in controlling the inflammation of cardiomyocytes. It is noteworthy that miR-142-3p was found to be decreased in the plasma of STEMI patients undergoing pPCI with no-reflow, indicating a potential clinical relevance of miR-142-3p. The receiver-operator characteristic curve indicated that plasma miR-142-3p might be an independent predictor of no-reflow during pPCI in patients with STEMI. Therefore, overexpression of miR-142-3p acts as a novel therapy for CME-induced myocardial injury.