Three-dimensional characterization of the anteverted glenoid (type D) in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis

J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2019 Jun;28(6):1175-1182. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2018.09.015. Epub 2019 Jan 23.


Background: The Walch classification describes glenoid morphology in primary arthritis. As knowledge grows, several modifications to the classification have been proposed. The type D, a recent modification, was defined as an anteverted glenoid with or without anterior subluxation. Literature on the anteverted glenoid in primary osteoarthritis is limited. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyze the anatomic characteristics of the type D glenoid on radiographs and computed tomography (CT).

Methods: The shoulder arthroplasty databases from 3 institutions were examined to identify patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis and glenoid anteversion (≥5°), with or without anterior subluxation. The type D study cohort consisted of 18 patients (3% of the osteoarthritis cohort) and was a mean of 70 years old, with 11 women and 7 men. All radiographs were reviewed, and computed tomography Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Rosslyn, VA, USA) data were analyzed on validated 3-dimensional imaging software. Rotator cuff fatty infiltration, glenoid measurements (anteversion and inclination), and humeral head subluxation according to the scapular plane were determined.

Results: In the study cohort, the mean glenoid anteversion was 12° (range, 5°-24°), the mean inclination was 0°, and the mean anterior subluxation was 38% (range, 6%-56%). Eight patients (44%) had a biconcave glenoid with a posterosuperiorly positioned paleoglenoid and an anteroinferiorly positioned neoglenoid, and 10 patients had a monoconcave glenoid. Fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles never exceeded Goutallier stage 2.

Conclusion: The type D glenoid is an addition to the original Walch classification and is characterized by glenoid anteversion (≥5°), anteroinferior humeral head subluxation, and absence of severe subscapularis fatty infiltration.

Keywords: Shoulder osteoarthritis; Walch classification; anteverted glenoid; glenoid; reverse arthroplasty; shoulder arthroplasty.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Glenoid Cavity / diagnostic imaging*
  • Glenoid Cavity / pathology
  • Humans
  • Humeral Head / diagnostic imaging
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Joint Dislocations / diagnostic imaging*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoarthritis / diagnostic imaging*
  • Rotator Cuff / diagnostic imaging
  • Shoulder Joint / diagnostic imaging*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed