Targeting CB1 and GPR55 Endocannabinoid Receptors as a Potential Neuroprotective Approach for Parkinson's Disease

Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Aug;56(8):5900-5910. doi: 10.1007/s12035-019-1495-4. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Abstract

Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) and the GPR55 receptor are expressed in striatum and are potential targets in the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases in developed countries. The aim of this paper was to address the potential of ligands acting on those receptors to prevent the action of a neurotoxic agent, MPP+, that specifically affects neurons of the substantia nigra due to uptake via the dopamine DAT transporter. The SH-SY5Y cell line model was used as it expresses DAT and, therefore, is able to uptake MPP+ that inhibits complex I of the respiratory mitochondrial chain and leads to cell death. Cells were transfected with cDNAs coding for either or both receptors. Receptors in cotransfected cells formed heteromers as indicated by the in situ proximity ligation assays. Cell viability was assayed by oxygen rate consumption and by the bromide-based MTT method. Assays of neuroprotection using two concentrations of MPP+ showed that cells expressing receptor heteromers were more resistant to the toxic effect. After correction by effects on cell proliferation, the CB1R antagonist, SR141716, afforded an almost full neuroprotection in CB1R-expressing cells even when a selective agonist, ACEA, was present. In contrast, SR141716 was not effective in cells expressing CB1/GPR55 heteromeric complexes. In addition, an agonist of GPR55, CID1792197, did not enhance neuroprotection in GPR55-expressing cells. These results show that neurons expressing heteromers are more resistant to cell death but question the real usefulness of CB1R, GPR55, and their heteromers as targets to afford PD-related neuroprotection.

Keywords: Cannabinoid receptors; GPCRs; MPP+; Neurodegenerative diseases; Neuroprotection.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Models, Biological
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy*
  • Neuroprotection / drug effects
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology
  • Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Oxygen Consumption / drug effects
  • Parkinson Disease / drug therapy*
  • Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / metabolism
  • Receptors, Cannabinoid / metabolism

Substances

  • GPR55 protein, human
  • Ligands
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1
  • Receptors, Cannabinoid