Context and objective: Not only type 2 diabetes (T2D), but also type 1 diabetes (T1D), can be associated with insulin resistance, as assessed using insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal (M-value). We hypothesized that different factors would affect the M-value at the onset of T1D and T2D.
Design and patients: We examined 132 patients with T1D or T2D matched for sex, age, and body mass index with a known diabetes duration of <12 months. Multivariable linear regression analyses were applied to test the associations between glycemic control, blood lipid levels, adiponectin, and proinflammatory immune mediators and the M-value, obtained from the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.
Results: Despite comparable age, body mass index, and near-normoglycemic control, the mean M-value was lower in those with T2D than in those with T1D. Patients with T1D had a lower waist/hip ratio and serum triglycerides but higher serum adiponectin than patients with T2D. However, the circulating proinflammatory markers were not different. Even with adjustments for glucose-lowering treatments, the fasting blood glucose correlated negatively with the M-value in both groups. However, gamma-glutamyl transferase-independently of any treatments-correlated negatively only in T2D. In contrast, serum adiponectin correlated positively with the M-values.
Conclusions: Fasting glycemia correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both diabetes types. However, altered liver and adipose tissue function were associated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal only in T2D, underpinning the specific differences between these diabetes types.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01055093.
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