Correlates of Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Disposal in Recent-Onset Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Jun 1;104(6):2295-2304. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-02057.


Context and objective: Not only type 2 diabetes (T2D), but also type 1 diabetes (T1D), can be associated with insulin resistance, as assessed using insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal (M-value). We hypothesized that different factors would affect the M-value at the onset of T1D and T2D.

Design and patients: We examined 132 patients with T1D or T2D matched for sex, age, and body mass index with a known diabetes duration of <12 months. Multivariable linear regression analyses were applied to test the associations between glycemic control, blood lipid levels, adiponectin, and proinflammatory immune mediators and the M-value, obtained from the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.

Results: Despite comparable age, body mass index, and near-normoglycemic control, the mean M-value was lower in those with T2D than in those with T1D. Patients with T1D had a lower waist/hip ratio and serum triglycerides but higher serum adiponectin than patients with T2D. However, the circulating proinflammatory markers were not different. Even with adjustments for glucose-lowering treatments, the fasting blood glucose correlated negatively with the M-value in both groups. However, gamma-glutamyl transferase-independently of any treatments-correlated negatively only in T2D. In contrast, serum adiponectin correlated positively with the M-values.

Conclusions: Fasting glycemia correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both diabetes types. However, altered liver and adipose tissue function were associated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal only in T2D, underpinning the specific differences between these diabetes types.

Trial registration: NCT01055093.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / pharmacology*
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity, Abdominal / metabolism
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Lipids
  • Glucose

Associated data