Background and objective: Sclerosing pneumocytoma is a rare, benign tumor of the lung that represents a diagnostic challenge due to the diversity of pathohistological findings. The aim of this study was to present a 10-year experience with sclerosing pneumocytoma of a large center for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases, and to emphasize differential diagnostic dilemmas as a potential source of errors. Material and Methods: This represents a retrospective study of six patients diagnosed and treated with sclerosing pneumocytoma in the 10-year period. The study analyzed various parameters, which are: Sex, age, symptoms, size and localization of the tumor, and its gross and histological features. Results: Sclerosing pneumocytoma was more frequently diagnosed in females (83.34%). The patients ranged in age from 38 to 61. Most of the patients (66.66%) were asymptomatic. Two patients underwent a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, two patients had a video-assisted minithoracotomy, and two patients underwent a thoracotomy in order to remove the tumor. The tumor was localized in the left lower lobe, in the right upper lobe, and in the right lower lobe in 50%, 33.34%, and 16.66% of patients, respectively. The tumor size ranged from 1 to 2.5 cm. A pathohistological examination of all six cases reported that all four major histological patterns were found in tissue sections: solid, papillary, sclerosing, and hemorrhagic. In all six cases, an immunohistochemical analysis showed positive expression of TTF-1 and panCK in surface epithelial cells, and TTF-1 positivity and panCK negativity in round stromal cells. Conclusions: Sclerosing pneumocytoma is a strictly histological diagnosis supported by clinical and radiological findings and corresponding immunohistochemical methods. Lung pathologists should always keep this tumor in mind, since its spectrum of differential diagnosis is wide, and therefore it can be an important diagnostic pitfall.
Keywords: histopathology; immunohistochemistry; sclerosing pneumocytoma.