Motility, Biofilm Formation and Antimicrobial Efflux of Sessile and Planktonic Cells of Achromobacter xylosoxidans

Pathogens. 2019 Jan 27;8(1):14. doi: 10.3390/pathogens8010014.


Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an innately multidrug-resistant bacterium capable of forming biofilms in the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. During the transition from the planktonic stage to biofilm growth, bacteria undergo a transcriptionally regulated differentiation. An isolate of A. xylosoxidans cultured from the sputum of a CF patient was separated into sessile and planktonic stages in vitro, and the transcriptomes were compared. The selected genes of interest were subsequently inactivated, and flagellar motility was found to be decisive for biofilm formation in vitro. The spectrum of a new resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump (AxyEF-OprN) was characterized by inactivation of the membrane fusion protein. AxyEF-OprN is capable of extruding some fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin), tetracyclines (doxycycline and tigecycline) and carpabenems (ertapenem and imipenem), which are classes of antimicrobials that are widely used for treatment of CF pulmonary infections.

Keywords: Achromobacter xylosoxidans; antimicrobial efflux; biofilm; cystic fibrosis; transcriptomics.