The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that phosphorylate inositol phospholipids, thereby controlling membrane lipid composition and regulating a wide range of intracellular processes, including vesicular trafficking and signal transduction. Despite the vast knowledge on class I PI3Ks, recent studies are only now revealing the importance of class II PI3Ks in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Increasing evidence suggests that the three class II PI3Ks isoforms (PI3K-C2α, PI3K-C2β, and PI3K-C2γ) have distinct and non-overlapping cellular roles. Here, we focus on the cellular functions of class II PI3Ks in different cell systems and underline the emerging importance of these enzymes in various physiological and pathological contexts.
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