Differentiation of cardiac murmurs by dynamic auscultation

Curr Probl Cardiol. 1988 Oct;13(10):669-721. doi: 10.1016/0146-2806(88)90010-2.


The techniques described in this monograph will aid in the accurate identification of the origin of a cardiac murmur or abnormal heart sound. They do not necessarily reveal the presence or severity of cardiac disease. No maneuver is 100% accurate in elucidation of cardiac abnormalities, and a given maneuver's effectiveness varies in its application. The systematic application of a combination of maneuvers improves the accuracy of diagnosis. Auscultatory findings must be interpreted with consideration of the total clinical examination including history, other physical findings, ECG, chest x-ray, and possibly an echocardiogram. Thus, the careful physiological approach to the physical examination represents a powerful noninvasive tool that can be used in combination with other information to accurately diagnose cardiac disease in many patients and efficiently direct further evaluation when necessary.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Output
  • Electrocardiography
  • Heart Auscultation / methods*
  • Heart Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Heart Diseases / physiopathology
  • Heart Murmurs / methods*
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans